Robert Gould, DSc

Professor Emeritus
Adjunct Professor


Robert Gould, DSc, is a Professor and Vice Chair of Radiology for Technology and Capital Projects at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Gould earned his BA in Chemistry from the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio. He completed his MS in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and he received his ScD in Medical Physics from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was appointed to the faculty in the Department of Radiology at UCSF in 1977.

Dr. Gould is also the Director of the Laboratory of Radiologic Informatics, which is responsible for the department’s Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In this capacity, he has helped implement methods for recording of patient dose. He is currently involved in a Department project to install a Decision Support system that could potentially decrease patient radiation exposure by reducing unnecessary procedures and providing the referring clinician with alternative imaging methods that do not use ionizing radiation.

He is a member of the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging Operations Committee, Safety Committee and Radiation Oversight Committee. He is a member of UCSF Campus Radiation Safety Committee and Radioactive Drug Research Committee. Additionally, Dr. Gould is a member of the Medical Center Radiation Protection Committee. By serving on these Committees, he has been involved in radiation safety issues within the Department of Radiology, the Medical Center and the UCSF Campus. Dr. Gould has been involved in efforts to monitor and minimize radiation exposure to personnel involved in the use and delivery of radiation in clinical and research environments and in efforts to monitor and minimize exposure to patients undergoing an imaging procedure. These efforts have included the development of guidelines and standards for radiation use and quality improvement projects designed to reduce patient dose.

Radiological Informatics

Informatics, technology and capital projects

Professional Interests:
Medical physics, PACS, digital imaging, radiological informatics, digital mammography, CT, dual energy CT, x-ray detector technology

Education and Training:
• Bachelor of Art: College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio - Chemistry
• Masters of Science: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia - Biomedical Engineering
• Doctor of Science: Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts - Medical Physics

Chairman of the Board, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2003
Third Vice President, Radiological Society of North America, 2003
President, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2002
Fellow, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 1999
Editor's Certificate of Recognition, RadioGraphics, 1998

Honors and Awards

Chairman of the Board, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2003
Third Vice President, Radiological Society of North America, 2003
President, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2002
Fellow, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 1999
Editor's Certificate of Recognition, RadioGraphics, 1998


Payne-Sturges DC, Marty MA, Perera F, Miller MD, Swanson M, Ellickson K, Cory-Slechta DA, Ritz B, Balmes J, Anderko L, Talbott EO, Gould R, Hertz-Picciotto I. Healthy Air, Healthy Brains: Advancing Air Pollution Policy to Protect Children's Health. Am J Public Health. 2019 04; 109(4):550-554.
Smith-Bindman R, Wang Y, Chu P, Chung R, Einstein AJ, Balcombe J, Cocker M, Das M, Delman BN, Flynn M, Gould R, Lee RK, Nelson TR, Schindera S, Seibert A, Starkey J, Suntharalingam S, Wetter A, Wildberger JE, Miglioretti DL. International variation in radiation dose for computed tomography examinations: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2019 01 02; 364:k4931.
Lambert JW, Sun Y, Ordovas KG, Gould RG, Wang S, Yeh BM. Improved Calcium Scoring at Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography Using a High-Z Contrast Element and Novel Material Separation Technique. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2018 May/Jun; 42(3):459-466.
Lambert JW, Phillips ED, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Nardo L, Facchetti L, Gould RG. Axial or Helical? Considerations for wide collimation CT scanners capable of volumetric imaging in both modes. Med Phys. 2017 Nov; 44(11):5718-5725.
Demb J, Chu P, Nelson T, Hall D, Seibert A, Lamba R, Boone J, Krishnam M, Cagnon C, Bostani M, Gould R, Miglioretti D, Smith-Bindman R. Optimizing Radiation Doses for Computed Tomography Across Institutions: Dose Auditing and Best Practices. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 06 01; 177(6):810-817.
Kohlbrenner R, Kolli KP, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Lehrman ED, Fidelman N, Conrad M, LaBerge JM, Kerlan RK, Gould R. Radiation Dose Reduction during Uterine Fibroid Embolization Using an Optimized Imaging Platform. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Aug; 28(8):1129-1135.e1.
Lambert JW, Sun Y, Gould RG, Ohliger MA, Li Z, Yeh BM. An Image-Domain Contrast Material Extraction Method for Dual-Energy Computed Tomography. Invest Radiol. 2017 04; 52(4):245-254.
Winklhofer S, Lambert JW, Wang ZJ, Sun Y, Gould RG, Zagoria RJ, Yeh BM. Reduction of peristalsis-related gastrointestinal streak artifacts with dual-energy CT: a patient and phantom study. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2016 08; 41(8):1456-65.
Smith-Bindman R, Wang Y, Nelson TR, Moghadassi M, Wilson N, Gould R, Seibert A, Boone JM, Krishnam M, Lamba R, Hall DJ, Miglioretti DL. Predictors of CT Radiation Dose and Their Effect on Patient Care: A Comprehensive Analysis Using Automated Data. Radiology. 2017 Jan; 282(1):182-193.
Lambert JW, Gould RG. Evaluation of a Net Dose-Reducing Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation Technique: Comparison With Standard Dose and Bismuth-Shielded Acquisitions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun; 206(6):1233-40.
Phelps AS, Gould RG, Courtier JL, Marcovici PA, Salani C, MacKenzie JD. How Much Does Lead Shielding during Fluoroscopy Reduce Radiation Dose to Out-of-Field Body Parts? J Med Imaging Radiat Sci. 2016 Jun; 47(2):171-177.
Lambert JW, Phelps AS, Courtier JL, Gould RG, MacKenzie JD. Image quality and dose optimisation for infant CT using a paediatric phantom. Eur Radiol. 2016 May; 26(5):1387-95.
Kohlbrenner R, Kolli KP, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Fidelman N, LaBerge JM, Kerlan RK, Agarwal VK, Lehrman ED, Nanavati S, Avrin DE, Gould R. Patient Radiation Dose Reduction during Transarterial Chemoembolization Using a Novel X-Ray Imaging Platform. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015 Sep; 26(9):1331-8.
Smith-Bindman R, Moghadassi M, Wilson N, Nelson TR, Boone JM, Cagnon CH, Gould R, Hall DJ, Krishnam M, Lamba R, McNitt-Gray M, Seibert A, Miglioretti DL. Radiation Doses in Consecutive CT Examinations from Five University of California Medical Centers. Radiology. 2015 Oct; 277(1):134-41.
Keegan J, Miglioretti DL, Gould R, Donnelly LF, Wilson ND, Smith-Bindman R. Radiation dose metrics in CT: assessing dose using the National Quality Forum CT patient safety measure. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Mar; 11(3):309-15.
Lambert J, MacKenzie JD, Cody DD, Gould R. Techniques and tactics for optimizing CT dose in adults and children: state of the art and future advances. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Mar; 11(3):262-6.
Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Gould RG. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9.
Alhassen F, Nguyen N, Bains S, Gould RG, Seo Y, Bacharach SL, Song X, Shao L, Gullberg GT, Aparici CM. Myocardial blood flow measurement with a conventional dual-head SPECT/CT with spatiotemporal iterative reconstructions - a clinical feasibility study. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013; 4(1):53-9.
Yu JP, Kansagra AP, Naeger DM, Gould RG, Coakley FV. Template-driven computed tomography radiation dose reporting: implementation of a radiology housestaff quality improvement project. Acad Radiol. 2013 Jun; 20(6):769-72.
McCollough CH, Wang J, Gould RG, Orton CG. Point/counterpoint.The use of bismuth breast shields for CT should be discouraged. Med Phys. 2012 May; 39(5):2321-4.
Kim S, McClish M, Alhassen F, Seo Y, Shah KS, Gould RG. Temperature dependent operation of PSAPD-based compact gamma camera for SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2011 Oct 10; 58(5):2169-2174.
Alhassen F, Kudrolli H, Singh B, Kim S, Seo Y, Gould RG, Nagarkar VV. Depth-of-Interaction Compensation Using a Focused-Cut Scintillator for a Pinhole Gamma Camera. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2011 Jun 01; 58(3):634-638.
Wang ZJ, Chen KS, Gould R, Coakley FV, Fu Y, Yeh BM. Positive enteric contrast material for abdominal and pelvic CT with automatic exposure control: what is the effect on patient radiation exposure? Eur J Radiol. 2011 Aug; 79(2):e58-62.
Coakley FV, Gould R, Yeh BM, Arenson RL. CT radiation dose: what can you do right now in your practice? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Mar; 196(3):619-25.
Kim S, Hernandez A, Alhassen F, Pivovaroff M, Cho HM, Gould RG, Seo Y. Multi-Material Decomposition using Low-Current X-Ray and a Photon-Counting CZT Detector. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2011; 4735-4738.
Kim S, McClish M, Alhassen F, Seo Y, Shah KS, Gould RG. Phantom experiments on a PSAPD-based compact gamma camera with submillimeter spatial resolution for small animal SPECT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2010 Oct; 57(5):2518-2523.
Smith-Bindman R, Lipson J, Marcus R, Kim KP, Mahesh M, Gould R, Berrington de González A, Miglioretti DL. Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Dec 14; 169(22):2078-86.
Dinov ID, Christou N, Gould R. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education. J Stat Educ. 2009 Mar; 17(1):1-19.
Rinkel J, Dillon WP, Funk T, Gould R, Prevrhal S. Computed tomographic metal artifact reduction for the detection and quantitation of small features near large metallic implants: a comparison of published methods. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008 Jul-Aug; 32(4):621-9.
Smith AB, Dillon WP, Lau BC, Gould R, Verdun FR, Lopez EB, Wintermark M. Radiation dose reduction strategy for CT protocols: successful implementation in neuroradiology section. Radiology. 2008 May; 247(2):499-506.
Hsu CT, Wang ZJ, Yu AS, Gould RG, Fu Y, Joe BN, Qayyum A, Breiman RS, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. Physiology of renal medullary tip hyperattenuation at unenhanced CT: urinary specific gravity and the NaCl concentration gradient. Radiology. 2008 Apr; 247(1):147-53.
Chan WC, Joe BN, Coakley FV, Prien EL, Gould RG, Prevrhal S, Barber WC, Kirkwood KS, Qayyum A, Yeh BM. Gallstone detection at CT in vitro: effect of peak voltage setting. Radiology. 2006 Nov; 241(2):546-53.
Moore AA, Giuli L, Gould R, Hu P, Zhou K, Reuben D, Greendale G, Karlamangla A. Alcohol use, comorbidity, and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 May; 54(5):757-62.
Moore AA, Gould R, Reuben DB, Greendale GA, Carter MK, Zhou K, Karlamangla A. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of alcohol consumption in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2005 Mar; 95(3):458-65.
Gerson S, Mistry R, Bastani R, Blow F, Gould R, Llorente M, Maxwell A, Moye J, Olsen E, Rohrbaugh R, Rosansky J, Van Stone W, Jarvik L. Symptoms of depression and anxiety (MHI) following acute medical/surgical hospitalization and post-discharge psychiatric diagnoses (DSM) in 839 geriatric US veterans. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Dec; 19(12):1155-67.
Mistry R, Gokhman I, Bastani R, Gould R, Jimenez E, Maxwell A, McDermott C, Rosansky J, Van Stone W, Jarvik L, UPBEAT Collaborative Group. Measuring medical burden using CIRS in older veterans enrolled in UPBEAT, a psychogeriatric treatment program: a pilot study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 Oct; 59(10):1068-75.
Andriole KP, Luth DM, Gould RG. Workflow assessment of digital versus computed radiography and screen-film in the outpatient environment. J Digit Imaging. 2002; 15 Suppl 1:124-6.
Hamm B, Thoeni RF, Gould RG, Bernardino ME, Lüning M, Saini S, Mahfouz AE, Taupitz M, Wolf KJ. Focal liver lesions: characterization with nonenhanced and dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1994 Feb; 190(2):417-23.
Jaschke W, Lipton MJ, Gould RG, Georgi M. [Cine-CT: a new procedure in x-ray computed tomography]. Rontgenpraxis. 1988 Jun; 41(6):205-11.
Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, Gould RG, Cassidy MM, Higgins CB. Measurement of right and left ventricular volumes in healthy individuals with cine MR imaging. Radiology. 1987 Jun; 163(3):697-702.
Mayo JR, Webb WR, Gould R, Stein MG, Bass I, Gamsu G, Goldberg HI. High-resolution CT of the lungs: an optimal approach. Radiology. 1987 May; 163(2):507-10.
Jaschke W, Cogan MG, Sievers R, Gould R, Lipton MJ. Measurement of renal blood flow by cine computed tomography. Kidney Int. 1987 Apr; 31(4):1038-42.
Jaschke W, Gould RG, Assimakopoulos PA, Lipton MJ. Flow measurements with a high-speed computed tomography scanner. Med Phys. 1987 Mar-Apr; 14(2):238-43.
Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, White RD, Gould RG, Holt W, Lipton MJ, Higgins CB. Cine MR imaging: potential for the evaluation of cardiovascular function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Feb; 148(2):239-46.
Lanzer P, Garrett J, Lipton MJ, Gould R, Sievers R, O'Connell W, Botvinick E, Higgins CB. Quantitation of regional myocardial function by cine computed tomography: pharmacologic changes in wall thickness. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Sep; 8(3):682-92.
Helms CA, Gillespy T, Gould RG, Ware WH. Cine-CT of the temporomandibular joint. Cranio. 1986 Jul; 4(3):246-50.
Farmer D, Lipton MJ, Gould R, Higgins CB. High-speed (cine) computed tomography of the heart. Cardiovasc Clin. 1986; 17(1):345-56.
Denardo SJ, Anderson DJ, Gould RG, Lipton MJ, Brundage BH, Ports TA. Feasibility, reliability, and advantage of utilizing low contrast dose digital subtraction ventriculography in a conventional catheterization laboratory. Am Heart J. 1985 Sep; 110(3):631-6.
Norman D, Brant-Zawadzki M, Gould RG, Newton TH. Optimal iodine concentration in digital subtraction arteriography. Invest Radiol. 1984 Nov-Dec; 19(6 Suppl):S368-70.
Brasch RC, Gould RG. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant. Radiology. 1982 Mar; 142(3):649-55.
Goldberg HI, Gould R, Rosenquist J, Royal S, Owen RL, Silverman S. In vivo demonstration of small intestinal villi in dogs and monkeys using radiographic magnification. Radiology. 1982 Jan; 142(1):53-8.
Brasch RC, Randel SB, Gould RG. Follow-up of Wilms tumor: comparison of CT with other imaging procedures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981 Nov; 137(5):1005-9.
Gould RG, Genant HK. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of two microfocus-tube imaging systems. Radiology. 1981 Jan; 138(1):195-201.
Gould RG, Belanger B, Goldberg HI, Moss A. Objective performance measurements versus perceived image quality in intensified fluoroscopic or photospot images. Radiology. 1980 Dec; 137(3):783-8.
Brasch RC, Gould RG. The fork-lift infant elevator for neonatal magnification radiography. Radiology. 1980 Jul; 136(1):232-3.
Gould RG, Judy PF, Bjärngard BE. Noise characteristics of a microchannel plate x-ray image intensifier. Med Phys. 1978 Mar-Apr; 5(2):115-9.
Gould RG. Image resolution of a microchannel plate x-ray image intensifier. Med Phys. 1978 Jan-Feb; 5(1):27-30.
Leeming BW, Hames OS, Gould RG, Locke E. A comparison of fluoroscopically controlled patient positioning and conventional positioning, including comparative dosimetry. Radiology. 1977 Jul; 124(1):231-4.