Emily Webb, MD

Director of Medical Student Education
Academy Chair for Education
Professor Clinical Radiology


Emily (Emma) Webb, MD, is a Professor of Clinical Radiology in the Abdominal Imaging Section, and she is the Co-Director of the Goldberg Center for Advanced Imaging Education in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her medical degree from New York Medical College in 2000, and completed her residency in Diagnostic Radiology at Yale New Haven Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, followed by a fellowship in Abdominal Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco in 2006.

Dr. Webb has a research interest in varied clinical applications of body CT and MRI, particularly in CT evaluation of the bowel and bowel pathology, which has been documented in her most recent publications and lecture topics. She also has an interest in oncologic imaging. Her primary research focus is on CT of the appendicitis. One project examined the utility of CT in adult men with suspected appendicitis, a topic that has been debatable in the existing surgical literature.

Dr. Webb has significant publications related to her primary research interest. Topics include, cystic fibrosis, the equivocal appendix at CT, and acute appendicitis. She has over 30 publications dedicated to her research, clinical trials, and study cases.

Abdominal Imaging, Adult

CT evaluation of bowel and bowel pathology, CT of appendicitis

Professional Interests:
CT evaluation of the appendix, imaging of inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis, oncologic imaging

Education and Training:
• Medical School: New York Medical College
• Internship: Kaiser Santa Clara Hospital, California - Internal Medicine
• Residency: Yale-New Haven Hospital School of Medicine - Diagnostic Radiology
• Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Abdominal Imaging
• United States Medical Licensing Exam Steps I, II, and III (completed 2001)
• Certification, American Board of Radiology (active)
• California State Medical Board, License (active)
• Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Registration Certificate (active)


2018 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
M.D., 2000 - School of Medicine, New York

Honors and Awards

Medical Student Teaching Award, University of California, San Francisco, 2017
Minagi Chair Award, Educational Grant, University of California, San Francisco Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 2012
Academy of Medical Educators Excellence in Teaching Award Recipient, University of California, San Francisco, 2009
Chief Resident, Yale New Haven Hospital, Radiology, 2005


Webb EM, Holman DB, Schmidt KN, Pun B, Sedivec KK, Hurlbert JL, Bochantin KA, Ward AK, Dahlen CR, Amat S. Sequencing and culture-based characterization of the vaginal and uterine microbiota in beef cattle that became pregnant or remained open following artificial insemination. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Dec 12; 11(6):e0273223.
Singh SK, King K, Gannett C, Chuong C, Joshi SY, Plate C, Farzeen P, Webb EM, Kunche LK, Weger-Lucarelli J, Lowell AN, Brown AM, Deshmukh SA. Data Driven Computational Design and Experimental Validation of Drugs for Accelerated Mitigation of Pandemic-like Scenarios. J Phys Chem Lett. 2023 Oct 26; 14(42):9490-9499.
Webb EM. The Best of Both Worlds: Hybrid Radiology Clerkships. Acad Radiol. 2023 08; 30(8):1746-1747.
Rai P, Webb EM, Kang L, Weger-Lucarelli J. Insulin reduces the transmission potential of chikungunya virus and activates the toll pathway in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Insect Mol Biol. 2023 12; 32(6):648-657.
Webb EM, Compton A, Rai P, Chuong C, Paulson SL, Tu Z, Weger-Lucarelli J. Expression of anti-chikungunya single-domain antibodies in transgenic Aedes aegypti reduces vector competence for chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus. Front Microbiol. 2023; 14:1189176.
Webb EM, Holman DB, Schmidt KN, Crouse MS, Dahlen CR, Cushman RA, Snider AP, McCarthy KL, Amat S. A Longitudinal Characterization of the Seminal Microbiota and Antibiotic Resistance in Yearling Beef Bulls Subjected to Different Rates of Gain. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Mar 14; e0518022.
Luecke SM, Webb EM, Dahlen CR, Reynolds LP, Amat S. Seminal and vagino-uterine microbiome and their individual and interactive effects on cattle fertility. Front Microbiol. 2022; 13:1029128.
Webb EM, Mongan J. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Radiomics may Increase the Role of Imaging in Malignant Risk Assessment. Acad Radiol. 2022 06; 29(6):817-818.
Liu JL, Zabetakis D, Gardner CL, Burke CW, Glass PJ, Webb EM, Shriver-Lake LC, Anderson GP, Weger-Lucarelli J, Goldman ER. Bivalent single domain antibody constructs for effective neutralization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Sci Rep. 2022 01 13; 12(1):700.
Chuong C, DuChane CM, Webb EM, Rai P, Marano JM, Bernier CM, Merola JS, Weger-Lucarelli J. Noble Metal Organometallic Complexes Display Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2. Viruses. 2021 05 25; 13(6).
Liu JL, Webb EM, Zabetakis D, Burke CW, Gardner CL, Glass PJ, Legler PM, Weger-Lucarelli J, Anderson GP, Goldman ER. Stabilization of a Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Chikungunya Virus Single Domain Antibody. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021; 8:626028.
Webb EM, Kallianos KG, Vella M, Straus CM, Bucknor MD, Galvan J, Scoutt LM. Are Women Disproportionately Represented in Education Compared to Other Roles in Academic Radiology? Acad Radiol. 2020 12; 27(12):1767-1773.
Webb EM, Azar SR, Haller SL, Langsjoen RM, Cuthbert CE, Ramjag AT, Luo H, Plante K, Wang T, Simmons G, Carrington CVF, Weaver SC, Rossi SL, Auguste AJ. Effects of Chikungunya virus immunity on Mayaro virus disease and epidemic potential. Sci Rep. 2019 12 31; 9(1):20399.
Monareng VL, Wolvaardt JE, Bac M, Webb EM. Practice choices of clinical associates: Policy realisation or practical reality? S Afr Med J. 2019 Sep 30; 109(10):761-764.
Webb EM, Kohi MP. How to Navigate Toxic Behaviors at Work. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 12; 16(12):1723-1725.
Jha P, Espinoza N, Webb E, Kohli M, Poder L, Morgan T. Single institutional experience with initial ultrasound followed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for acute appendicitis in adults. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 07; 44(7):2357-2365.
Kallianos KG, Webb EM, Hess CP, Talbott J, Bucknor MD. Use of the Implicit Association Test to Improve Diversity in Radiology. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 Jul; 16(7):976-979.
Shah R, Khoram R, Lambert JW, Sun Y, Wang ZJ, Webb EM, Yeh BM. Effect of gantry rotation speed and scan mode on peristalsis motion artifact frequency and severity at abdominal CT. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018 09; 43(9):2239-2245.
Yen AJ, Webb EM, Jordan EJ, Kallianos K, Naeger DM. The Stability of Factors Influencing the Choice of Medical Specialty Among Medical Students and Postgraduate Radiology Trainees. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Jun; 15(6):886-891.
G. Gadodia, V. Kumar, M. Conrad, D. Naeger, E. Webb. 3:09 PM Abstract No. 293 Guidance on ultrasound: the efficacy of a short, reproducible, interactive course aimed at improving core ultrasound procedural competencies in fourth year medical students. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2018 Apr 1; 29(4):s126.
Webb EM, Bucknor MD, Naeger DM. Diversity and Inclusion: Now Radiology Must Walk the Walk. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 04; 15(4):687-688.
Phelps A, Callen AL, Marcovici P, Naeger DM, Mongan J, Webb EM. Can Radiologists Learn From Airport Baggage Screening?: A Survey About Using Fictional Patients for Quality Assurance. Acad Radiol. 2018 02; 25(2):226-234.
Kallianos KG, Webb EM, Conrad M, Ahearn B, Naeger DM. Interest in Interventional Radiology at Different Stages of Training: Possible Implications for the New Integrated Interventional Radiology Residency. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2018 Sep; 47(5):293-295.
Jacqueline T. DesJardin, Santo K. Ricceri, Stephen D. Brown, Emily M. Webb, David M. Naeger, Nathan A. Teismann. A Near-peer Point-of-care Ultrasound Elective for Medical Students: Impact on Anatomy Knowledge, Perceptions About Ultrasound, and Self-reported Skill Level. Academic Radiology. 2017 Jun 1; 24(6):772-779.
van der Gijp A, Webb EM, Naeger DM. How Radiologists Think: Understanding Fast and Slow Thought Processing and How It Can Improve Our Teaching. Acad Radiol. 2017 06; 24(6):768-771.
van der Gijp A, Vincken KL, Boscardin C, Webb EM, Ten Cate OTJ, Naeger DM. The Effect of Teaching Search Strategies on Perceptual Performance. Acad Radiol. 2017 06; 24(6):762-767.
Courtier J, Webb EM, Phelps AS, Naeger DM. Assessing the learning potential of an interactive digital game versus an interactive-style didactic lecture: the continued importance of didactic teaching in medical student education. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Dec; 46(13):1787-1796.
van der Gijp A, Ravesloot CJ, Ten Cate OT, van Schaik JP, Webb EM, Naeger DM. Tests, Quizzes, and Self-Assessments: How to Construct a High-Quality Examination. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Aug; 207(2):339-43.
Phelps A, Wan J, Straus C, Naeger DM, Webb EM. Incorporation of Ultrasound Education Into Medical School Curricula: Survey of Directors of Medical Student Education in Radiology. Acad Radiol. 2016 07; 23(7):830-5.
Kozak B, Webb EM, Khan BK, Orozco NM, Straus CM, Naeger DM. Medical Student Usage of the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria. Acad Radiol. 2015 Dec; 22(12):1606-11.
Jen A, Webb EM, Ahearn B, Naeger DM. Lecture Evaluations by Medical Students: Concepts That Correlate With Scores. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Jan; 13(1):72-6.
Webb EM, Ahearn B, Naeger DM. A Designated "Teaching Resident": A Novel Leadership Position to Promote Educational Skills and an Academic Career. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Jan; 13(1):77-80.
Naeger DM, Hua EW, Ahearn B, Webb EM. Reflective Writing: A Potential Tool to Improve Interprofessional Teamwork with Radiologists. Acad Radiol. 2015 Oct; 22(10):1221-5.
Webb EM, Phuong JS, Naeger DM. Does Educator Training or Experience Affect the Quality of Multiple-Choice Questions? Acad Radiol. 2015 Oct; 22(10):1317-22.
Webb EM, Naeger DM, McNulty NJ, Straus CM. Needs Assessment for Standardized Medical Student Imaging Education: Review of the Literature and a Survey of Deans and Chairs. Acad Radiol. 2015 Oct; 22(10):1214-20.
Naeger DM, Jen A, Ahearn B, Webb EM. Effectively Acquiring and Using Feedback. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Dec; 12(12 Pt A):1320-3.
Webb EM, Vella M, Straus CM, Phelps A, Naeger DM. Interpretive versus noninterpretive content in top-selling radiology textbooks: what are we teaching medical students? Acad Radiol. 2015 Apr; 22(4):520-6.
Benedetti NJ, Naeger DM, Webb EM. Radiology primer: A novel radiology course for undecided medical students. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Dec; 11(12 Pt A):1182-5.
Valenzuela DM, Behr SC, Coakley FV, Wang ZJ, Webb EM, Yeh BM. Computed tomography of iatrogenic complications of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, stenting, and intubation. Radiol Clin North Am. 2014 Sep; 52(5):1055-70.
Webb EM, Cotton JB, Kane K, Straus CM, Topp KS, Naeger DM. Teaching point of care ultrasound skills in medical school: keeping radiology in the driver's seat. Acad Radiol. 2014 Jul; 21(7):893-901.
Naeger DM, Jafri NF, Webb EM, Avrin D, Qayyum A. Can hospital-based cellular phones improve on-call communication? J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Nov; 11(11):1090-2.
Naeger DM, Straus CM, Phelps A, Courtier J, Webb EM. Student-created independent learning modules: An easy high-value addition to radiology clerkships. Acad Radiol. 2014 Jul; 21(7):879-87.
Straus CM, Webb EM, Kondo KL, Phillips AW, Naeger DM, Carrico CW, Herring W, Neutze JA, Haines GR, Dodd GD. Medical student radiology education: summary and recommendations from a national survey of medical school and radiology department leadership. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Jun; 11(6):606-10.
Naeger DM, Webb EM, Zimmerman L, Elicker BM. Strategies for incorporating radiology into early medical school curricula. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Jan; 11(1):74-9.
Chu LL, Webb EM, Stengel JW, Yeh BM, Lu Y, Coakley FV. CT of acute appendicitis: can diagnostic accuracy serve as a practical performance metric for readers specialized in abdominal imaging? Clin Imaging. 2014 Jan-Feb; 38(1):56-9.
Naeger DM, Wilcox C, Phelps A, Ordovas KG, Webb EM. Residents teaching medical students: how do they compare with attending educators? J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Jan; 11(1):63-7.
Wang W, Wang ZJ, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Gross AJ, Yeh BM. Omental infarction preceded by anatomically upturned omentum. Clin Imaging. 2013 Nov-Dec; 37(6):1125-7.
Penn A, Wang W, Wang ZJ, Yee J, Webb EM, Yeh BM. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Eur J Radiol. 2013 Nov; 82(11):e637-40.
Naeger DM, Webb EM. Social media for professional purposes: introduction to the JACR "how to" video guide. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Oct; 10(10):736-7.
Naeger DM, Conrad M, Nguyen J, Kohi MP, Webb EM. Students teaching students: evaluation of a "near-peer" teaching experience. Acad Radiol. 2013 Sep; 20(9):1177-82.
Naeger DM, Kohi MP, Webb EM, Phelps A, Ordovas KG, Newman TB. Correctly using sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in clinical practice: how to avoid three common pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Jun; 200(6):W566-70.
Keedy AW, Breiman RS, Webb EM, Roberts JP, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. Determinants of second-order bile duct visualization at CT cholangiography in potential living liver donors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 May; 200(5):1028-33.
Naeger DM, Phelps A, Kohi M, Elicker B, Ordovas K, Webb EM. Reading room electives: say goodbye to the "radi-holiday". J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Jun; 10(6):442-8.
Webb EM, Naeger DM, Fulton TB, Straus CM. Learning objectives in radiology education: why you need them and how to write them. Acad Radiol. 2013 Mar; 20(3):358-63.
Webb EM, Wang ZJ, Westphalen AC, Nakakura EK, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. Can CT features differentiate between inferior vena cava leiomyosarcomas and primary retroperitoneal masses? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Jan; 200(1):205-9.
Taylor R. Jordan, Emily M. Webb. Diseases of the Appendix. Abdominal Imaging. 2013 Jan 1; 885-904.
Cabarrus M, Sun YL, Courtier JL, Stengel JW, Coakley FV, Webb EM. The prevalence and patterns of intraluminal air in acute appendicitis at CT. Emerg Radiol. 2013 Jan; 20(1):51-6.
Kane AJ, Wang ZJ, Qayyum A, Yeh BM, Webb EM, Coakley FV. Frequency and etiology of unexplained bilateral hydronephrosis in patients with breast cancer: results of a longitudinal CT study. Clin Imaging. 2012 Jul-Aug; 36(4):263-6.
Webb EM, Nguyen A, Wang ZJ, Stengel JW, Westphalen AC, Coakley FV. The negative appendectomy rate: who benefits from preoperative CT? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Oct; 197(4):861-6.
Tan JH, Coakley FV, Wang ZJ, Poder L, Webb E, Yeh BM. Pseudotumor of the distal common bile duct at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Clin Imaging. 2011 Jul-Aug; 35(4):279-83.
Huynh TN, Johnson T, Poder L, Joe BN, Webb EM, Coakley FV. T1 pseudohyperintensity on fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging: a potential diagnostic pitfall. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2011 Jul-Aug; 35(4):459-61.
Gaydos CA, Cartwright CP, Colaninno P, Welsch J, Holden J, Ho SY, Webb EM, Anderson C, Bertuzis R, Zhang L, Miller T, Leckie G, Abravaya K, Robinson J. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Sep; 48(9):3236-43.
Stengel JW, Webb EM, Poder L, Yeh BM, Smith-Bindman R, Coakley FV. Acute appendicitis: clinical outcome in patients with an initial false-positive CT diagnosis. Radiology. 2010 Jul; 256(1):119-26.
Wang ZJ, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. Multi-detector row computed tomographic appearance of celiac ganglia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010 May-Jun; 34(3):343-7.
Kumar R, Wang ZJ, Fu Y, Forsythe C, Webb EM, Yeh BM. Visualization of renal medullary hyperattenuation at unenhanced CT: what is the effect of furosemide administration? Radiology. 2010 May; 255(2):495-500.
Desai G, Poder L, Wang ZJ, Yeh BM, Webb EM, Coakley FV. Computed tomography findings in pseudothrombosis of the iliofemoral vein. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010 Jan; 34(1):146-8.
Watchorn RE, Poder L, Wang ZJ, Yeh BM, Webb EM, Coakley FV. Computed tomography findings mimicking appendicitis as a manifestation of colorectal cancer. Clin Imaging. 2009 Nov-Dec; 33(6):430-2.
Barajas RF, Yeh BM, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Poder L, Coakley FV. Spectrum of CT findings in patients with atrial fibrillation and nontraumatic acute abdomen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Aug; 193(2):485-92.
Webb EM, Wang ZJ, Coakley FV, Poder L, Westphalen AC, Yeh BM. The equivocal appendix at CT: prevalence in a control population. Emerg Radiol. 2010 Jan; 17(1):57-61.
Webb EM, Joe BN, Coakley FV, Qayyum A, Westphalen AC, Yeh BM. Appendiceal wall thickening at CT in asymptomatic patients with extraintestinal malignancy may mimic appendicitis. Clin Imaging. 2009 May-Jun; 33(3):200-3.
Hunt SJ, Coakley FV, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Poder L, Yeh BM. Computed tomography of the acute abdomen in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009 Mar-Apr; 33(2):280-5.
Khademi S, Westphalen AC, Webb EM, Joe BN, Badiee S, Hawkins RA, Coakley FV. Frequency and etiology of solitary hot spots in the pelvis at whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Clin Imaging. 2009 Jan-Feb; 33(1):44-8.
Yeh BM, Coakley FV, Webb EM, Qayyum A, Westphalen AC, Way LW. Evaluation of the biliary intestinal limb of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy using computed tomographic cholangiography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008 Nov-Dec; 32(6):886-9.
Badiee S, Franc BL, Webb EM, Chu B, Hawkins RA, Coakley F, Singer L. Role of IV iodinated contrast material in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Nov; 191(5):1436-9.
Webb EM, Kleinhenz ME, Coakley FV, Chang CI, Westphalen AC, Yeh BM. Colonic wall redundancy at CT in patients with cystic fibrosis. Radiology. 2008 Sep; 248(3):869-75.
Breiman RS, Coakley FV, Webb EM, Ellingson JJ, Roberts JP, Kohr J, Lutz J, Knoess N, Yeh BM. CT cholangiography in potential liver donors: effect of premedication with intravenous morphine on biliary caliber and visualization. Radiology. 2008 Jun; 247(3):733-7.
Yeh BM, Joe BN, Sirlin CB, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Qayyum A, Coakley FV. Vascular contact with soft tissue: a sign of mesenteric masses at computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008 Mar-Apr; 32(2):185-90.
McKenna DA, Coakley FV, Westphalen AC, Zhao S, Lu Y, Webb EM, Pickett B, Roach M, Kurhanewicz J. Prostate cancer: role of pretreatment MR in predicting outcome after external-beam radiation therapy--initial experience. Radiology. 2008 Apr; 247(1):141-6.
A. Keedy, R. S. Breiman, F. V. Coakley, E. M. Webb, Z. J. Wang, B. M. Yeh. CMR 2007: 13.04: Determinants of bile duct visualization at CT cholangiography for living potential liver donors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. 2007 Nov 1; 2(6):303-304.
Chu LL, Joe BN, Westphalen AC, Webb EM, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. Patient-specific time to peak abdominal organ enhancement varies with time to peak aortic enhancement at MR imaging. Radiology. 2007 Dec; 245(3):779-87.
Sandhu PS, Joe BN, Coakley FV, Qayyum A, Webb EM, Yeh BM. Bowel transition points: multiplicity and posterior location at CT are associated with small-bowel volvulus. Radiology. 2007 Oct; 245(1):160-7.
Bethke L, Webb E, Sellick G, Rudd M, Penegar S, Withey L, Qureshi M, Houlston R. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk. BMC Cancer. 2007 Jul 05; 7:123.
Arora SS, Breiman RS, Webb EM, Westphalen AC, Yeh BM, Coakley FV. CT and MRI of congenital anomalies of the seminal vesicles. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Jul; 189(1):130-5.
David A. McKenna, Fergus V. Coakley, Antonio C. Westphalen, Shoujun Zhao, Ying Lu, Emily M. Webb, Barby Pickett, Mack Roach, John Kurhanewicz. 1785: Role of pre-treatment MR Imaging in the Prediction of Patient Outcome after External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology. 2007 Apr 1; 177(4):593.
Webb EM, Green GE, Scoutt LM. Adnexal mass with pelvic pain. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004 Mar; 42(2):329-48.
Webb EM, Elicker BM, Webb WR. Using CT to diagnose nonneoplastic tracheal abnormalities: appearance of the tracheal wall. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000 May; 174(5):1315-21.
Webb E, Wyatt JP, Henry J, Busuttil A. A comparison of fatal with non-fatal knife injuries in Edinburgh. Forensic Sci Int. 1999 Jan 25; 99(3):179-87.
Kirsch CF, Webb EM, Webb WR. Multicentric Castleman's disease and POEMS syndrome: CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 1997 Jan; 12(1):75-7.
Krystal JH, Webb E, Cooney NL, Kranzler HR, Southwick SW, Heninger GR, Charney DS. Serotonergic and noradrenergic dysregulation in alcoholism: m-chlorophenylpiperazine and yohimbine effects in recently detoxified alcoholics and healthy comparison subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Jan; 153(1):83-92.