Bioengineering 230B / Biomedical Imaging 202

Title: Physics of Medical Imaging - Radionuclide Imaging and SPECT/PET

Course number: Bioengineering 230B (UCSF/UC Berkeley Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering)- Offered biennially until 2011.

Since September 2011, this course is being taught as "Biomedical Imaging 202: Physical Principles of CT, PET, and SPECT Imaging" - a core course in Master's of Science in Biomedical Imaging (MSBI) at the UCSF Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging.

Course Administration

Room/Time: UCSF China Basin (185 Berry St, Ste 350, San Francisco) 
Grading: Letter Grade - 50% Quizzes & Midterms | 50% Final
Instructors: Youngho Seo, PhD; Thomas Lang, PhD; Robert Gould, ScD
Text: Course Handouts and Recommended Readings

Sample Course Schedule 

NM Module 1: Introduction to tomographic imaging using ionizing radiation

NM Module 2: Radioactive decays, random processes, radionuclides
Recommended Reading:
1. Medical isotope shortage reaches crisis level (Nature)
2. The Particle Adventure

NM Module 3: Photon Interactions and radiation detection
Recommended Reading: The Review of Particle Physics: Passage of particles through matter

NM Module 4: Radiation measurements and dosimetry
Recommended Reading:
1. “Radiation Detection and Measurement” by Glenn F. Knoll (John Wiley and Sons)
2. Stabin M. Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:R187-R202
3. Toohey RE, et al. Internal Radiation Dosimetry: Principles and Applications. RadioGraphics. 2000;20:533-546

NM Module 5: SPECT instrumentation: Scintillation camera
Recommended Reading:
1. Tapscott E. Nuclear Medicine Pioneer, Hal O. Anger, 1920-2005. J Nucl Med Technol. 2005;33:250-253

NM Module 6: PET instrumentation: Coincidence imaging
Recommended Reading:
1. Pichler BJ, et al. Latest Advances in Molecular Imaging Instrumentation. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:5S-23S
2. Muehllehner G, Karp JS. Positron emission tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:R117-R137

NM Module 7: SPECT and PET image generation and image reconstruction
Recommended Reading:
1. Shepp LA, Vardi Y. Maximum likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography. IEEE Trans Med Imag. 1982;MI-1:113-122
2. Lange K, Carson R. EM reconstruction algorithms for emission and transmission tomography. J Comput Assisted Tomogr. 1984;8:306-312
3. Lecture Note by Bruce Hasegawa (hard copy)

NM Module 8: Physical effects and image corrections; QC/QA and safe handling
Recommended Reading: UCSF Radiation Safety Manual

NM Module 9: SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI
Recommended Reading:
1. Seo Y, et al. Technological Development and Advances in Single-Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography. Semin Nucl Med. 2008;38:177-198
2. Townsend DW, et al. PET/CT Today and Tomorrow. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:4S-14S

NM Module 10: Kinetic modeling: Blood flow, metabolic rate, and distribution volume
Recommended Reading:
1. Gunn RN, et al. Positron Emission Tomography Compartmental Models. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001;21:635-652
2. Logan J. Graphical Analysis of PET Data Applied to Reversible and Irreversible Tracers. Nucl Med Biol. 2000;27:661-670

NM Module 11: Advanced SPECT(/CT and /MR) applications
Recommended Reading:
1. Go V, et al. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of ECG-Gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:912-921
2. Sugawara Y, et al. Hyperactivity of 99mTc-HMPAO Within 6 Hours in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:1297-1302

NM Module 12: Advanced PET(/CT and /MR) applications
Recommended Reading:
1. Wong DF, et al. In Vivo Imaging of Amyloid Deposition in Alzheimer Disease Using the Radioligand 18F-AV-45 (Flobetapir F 18). J Nucl Med. 2010;51:913-920
2. Di Carli MF, et al. Clinical Myocardial Perfusion PET/CT. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:783-793
3. Juweid ME, Cheson BD. Positron-Emission Tomography and Assessment of Cancer Therapy. N Eng J Med. 2006;354:496-507

X-ray Module 1: Charged particle interactions, x-ray production, x-ray tubes, x-ray interactions

X-ray Module 2: Attenuation coefficients, image formation, scatter control

CT Module 1: Definitions and reconstruction

CT Module 2: Helical CT, MDCT, and quantitative applications