Robert Bok, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor
ASSOC ADJ PROF-HCOMP

Biography

Robert Bok, MD, PhD, is an Associate Adjunct Professor in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and the Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Bok obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1984, and he earned his MD in Medicine from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore in 1989. He completed his residency in Internal Medicine from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1992, followed by a fellowship in Hematology-Oncology from UCSF in 1996.

At the UCSF Mission Bay Surbeck Laboratory, Dr. Bok provides physician coverage for research on MRI/MRSI scans performed on patients. Dr. Bok’s research activities focuses on the development of better molecular imaging methods for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer. His primary interest is on the use of pre-clinical animal models to improve recent advances in MRSI for prostate cancer. This includes hyperpolarized carbon-13 techniques, high-resolution magic angle spectroscopy, and the use of novel nanoparticles. Dr. Bok and his colleagues are also investigating the use of hyperpolarized 13C-pryuvate in a transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer known as Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP).

Dr. Bok is a current member of the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, the CALGB, the Association of Northern California Oncologists, the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and the World Molecular Imaging Society. He has 60 published science articles and he has written 53 peer-reviewed articles and 90 abstracts.

Expertise:
Oncology

Specialty:
Prostate cancer, TRAMP, nanoparticles

Professional Interests:
Prostate cancer, urologic oncology, molecular imaging, hyperpolarized carbon-13 spectroscopy, high-resolution magic-angle spin spectroscopy, transgenic cancer models, extracellular proteases, metastases, molecular biomarkers

Education and Training:
• Medical School: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore - Medicine
• Internship: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
• Residency: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
• Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Hematology-Oncology
• Doctor of Philosophy: University of Illinois, Urbana - Biochemistry
• Medical License, State of California
• ABIM, Board Certification in Internal Medicine
• ABIM, Board Certification in Medical Oncology
• ACLS Certification

Honors and Awards

Executive Committee Member, UCSF Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center, 2011
Research Award, Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2006
Fellowship Award, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1980

Publications

Chen HY, Larson PEZ, Bok RA, von Morze C, Sriram R, Delos Santos R, Delos Santos J, Gordon JW, Bahrami N, Ferrone M, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Assessing Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness with Hyperpolarized Dual-Agent 3D Dynamic Imaging of Metabolism and Perfusion. Cancer Res. 2017 Jun 15; 77(12):3207-3216.
Wilson DM, Di Gialleonardo V, Wang ZJ, Carroll V, Von Morze C, Taylor A, Sai V, VanCriekinge M, Bok R, Ohliger MA, Keshari KR. Hyperpolarized 13C Spectroscopic Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in a Rodent Model of Steatohepatitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 20; 7:46014.
Marco-Rius I, Gordon JW, Mattis AN, Bok R, Delos Santos R, Sukumar S, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB, Ohliger MA. Diffusion-weighted imaging of hyperpolarized [13 C]urea in mouse liver. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Apr 17.
Milshteyn E, von Morze C, Reed GD, Shang H, Shin PJ, Zhu Z, Chen HY, Bok R, Goga A, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PE, Vigneron DB. Development of High Resolution 3D Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 MR Molecular Imaging Techniques. Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Jan 07.
Marco-Rius I, von Morze C, Sriram R, Cao P, Chang GY, Milshteyn E, Bok RA, Ohliger MA, Pearce D, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PE, Vigneron DB, Merritt M. Monitoring acute metabolic changes in the liver and kidneys induced by fructose and glucose using hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]dihydroxyacetone. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Nov 17.
Shang H, Sukumar S, von Morze C, Bok RA, Marco-Rius I, Kerr A, Reed GD, Milshteyn E, Ohliger MA, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PE, Pauly JM, Vigneron DB. Spectrally selective three-dimensional dynamic balanced steady-state free precession for hyperpolarized C-13 metabolic imaging with spectrally selective radiofrequency pulses. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Oct 21.
Ohliger MA, von Morze C, Marco-Rius I, Gordon J, Larson PE, Bok R, Chen HY, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron D. Combining hyperpolarized (13) C MRI with a liver-specific gadolinium contrast agent for selective assessment of hepatocyte metabolism. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Jun 14.
Reed GD, von Morze C, Verkman AS, Koelsch BL, Chaumeil MM, Lustig M, Ronen SM, Bok RA, Sands JM, Larson PE, Wang ZJ, Larsen JH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry. Tomography. 2016 Jun; 2(2):125-135.
von Morze C, Chang GY, Larson PE, Shang H, Allu PK, Bok RA, Crane JC, Olson MP, Tan CT, Marco-Rius I, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Pearce D, Vigneron DB. Detection of localized changes in the metabolism of hyperpolarized gluconeogenic precursors (13) C-lactate and (13) C-pyruvate in kidney and liver. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Apr 21.
Chen Y, Kim H, Bok R, Sukumar S, Mu X, Sheldon RA, Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM, Xu D. Pyruvate to Lactate Metabolic Changes during Neurodevelopment Measured Dynamically Using Hyperpolarized 13C Imaging in Juvenile Murine Brain. Dev Neurosci. 2016; 38(1):34-40.
Flavell RR, von Morze C, Blecha JE, Korenchan DE, Van Criekinge M, Sriram R, Gordon JW, Chen HY, Subramaniam S, Bok RA, Wang ZJ, Vigneron DB, Larson PE, Kurhanewicz J, Wilson DM. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C MRI. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Sep 25; 51(74):14119-22.
von Morze C, Bok RA, Ohliger MA, Zhu Z, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized [(13) C]ketobutyrate, a molecular analog of pyruvate with modified specificity for LDH isoforms. Magn Reson Med. 2016 May; 75(5):1894-900.
Keshari KR, Wilson DM, Sai V, Bok R, Jen KY, Larson P, Van Criekinge M, Kurhanewicz J, Wang ZJ. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress and response to therapy using hyperpolarized 13C dehydroascorbate magnetic resonance. Diabetes. 2015 Feb; 64(2):344-52.
Tang S, Jiang W, Chen HY, Bok R, Vigneron DB, Larson PE. A 2DRF pulse sequence for bolus tracking in hyperpolarized 13C imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Aug; 74(2):506-12.
von Morze C, Bok RA, Reed GD, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Simultaneous multiagent hyperpolarized (13)C perfusion imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Dec; 72(6):1599-609.
Park I, Larson PE, Tropp JL, Carvajal L, Reed G, Bok R, Robb F, Bringas J, Kells A, Pivirotto P, Bankiewicz K, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Dynamic hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR metabolic imaging of nonhuman primate brain. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):19-25.
Reed GD, von Morze C, Bok R, Koelsch BL, Van Criekinge M, Smith KJ. High resolution (13)C MRI with hyperpolarized urea: in vivo T(2) mapping and (15)N labeling effects. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2014 Feb; 33(2):362-71.
Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Larson PE, Harzstark AL, Ferrone M, van Criekinge M, Chang JW, Bok R, Park I, Reed G, Carvajal L, Small EJ, Munster P, Weinberg VK, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Chen AP, Hurd RE, Odegardstuen LI, Robb FJ, Tropp J, Murray JA. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Aug 14; 5(198):198ra108.
Swisher CL, Larson PE, Kruttwig K, Kerr AB, Hu S, Bok RA, Goga A, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Quantitative measurement of cancer metabolism using stimulated echo hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRS. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):1-11.
Ohliger MA, Larson PE, Bok RA, Shin P, Hu S, Tropp J, Robb F, Carvajal L, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Combined parallel and partial fourier MR reconstruction for accelerated 8-channel hyperpolarized carbon-13 in vivo magnetic resonance Spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep; 38(3):701-13.
Larson PE, Hurd RE, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Bok RA, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Perfusion and diffusion sensitive 13C stimulated-echo MRSI for metabolic imaging of cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Jun; 31(5):635-42.
Hu S, Larson PE, Vancriekinge M, Leach AM, Park I, Leon C, Zhou J, Shin PJ, Reed G, Keselman P, von Morze C, Yoshihara H, Bok RA, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Rapid sequential injections of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in vivo using a sub-kelvin, multi-sample DNP polarizer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 May; 31(4):490-6.
von Morze C, Sukumar S, Reed GD, Larson PE, Bok RA, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Frequency-specific SSFP for hyperpolarized ¹³C metabolic imaging at 14.1 T. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Feb; 31(2):163-70.
Park I, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Ito M, Mukherjee J, Phillips JJ, James CD, Pieper RO, Ronen SM, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Evaluation of heterogeneous metabolic profile in an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model using compressed sensing hyperpolarized 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2013 Jul; 70(1):33-9.
Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok R, Zhou J, Zhu M, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Use of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate to probe the effects of the anticancer agent dichloroacetate on mitochondrial metabolism in vivo in the normal rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Dec; 30(10):1367-72.
von Morze C, Bok RA, Sands JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Monitoring urea transport in rat kidney in vivo using hyperpolarized ¹³C magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Jun 15; 302(12):F1658-62.
Reed GD, Larson PE, Morze Cv, Bok R, Lustig M, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. A method for simultaneous echo planar imaging of hyperpolarized ¹³C pyruvate and ¹³C lactate. J Magn Reson. 2012 Apr; 217:41-7.
Costello LC, Franklin RB, Zou J, Feng P, Bok R, Swanson MG, Kurhanewicz J. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Dec 15; 12(12):1078-84.
von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok RA, Goga A, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Vigneron DB. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized (13)C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Apr; 30(3):305-11.
Keshari KR, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Larson PE, Vigneron DB, Wilson DM. Hyperpolarized 13C dehydroascorbate as an endogenous redox sensor for in vivo metabolic imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 15; 108(46):18606-11.
Hu S, Zhu M, Yoshihara HA, Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Shin P, Reed G, von Morze C, Bok R, Larson PE, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo measurement of normal rat intracellular pyruvate and lactate levels after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]alanine. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Oct; 29(8):1035-40.
Hu S, Balakrishnan A, Bok RA, Anderton B, Larson PE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Goga A. 13C-pyruvate imaging reveals alterations in glycolysis that precede c-Myc-induced tumor formation and regression. Cell Metab. 2011 Jul 6; 14(1):131-42.
Park I, Bok R, Ozawa T, Phillips JJ, James CD, Vigneron DB, Ronen SM, Nelson SJ. Detection of early response to temozolomide treatment in brain tumors using hyperpolarized 13C MR metabolic imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Jun; 33(6):1284-90.
von Morze C, Reed G, Shin P, Larson PE, Hu S, Bok R, Vigneron DB. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. J Magn Reson. 2011 Aug; 211(2):109-13.
von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Keshari K, Wilson DM, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Goga A, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Imaging of blood flow using hyperpolarized [(13)C]urea in preclinical cancer models. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Mar; 33(3):692-7.
Tropp J, Lupo JM, Chen A, Calderon P, McCune D, Grafendorfer T, Ozturk-Isik E, Larson PE, Hu S, Yen YF, Robb F, Bok R, Schulte R, Xu D, Hurd R, Vigneron D, Nelson S. Multi-channel metabolic imaging, with SENSE reconstruction, of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate in a live rat at 3.0 tesla on a clinical MR scanner. J Magn Reson. 2011 Jan; 208(1):171-7.
Hurd RE, Yen YF, Mayer D, Chen A, Wilson D, Kohler S, Bok R, Vigneron D, Kurhanewicz J, Tropp J, Spielman D, Pfefferbaum A. Metabolic imaging in the anesthetized rat brain using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate and [1-13C] ethyl pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2010 May; 63(5):1137-43.
Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Larson PE, Chen AP, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Multi-compound polarization by DNP allows simultaneous assessment of multiple enzymatic activities in vivo. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jul; 205(1):141-7.
Larson PE, Bok R, Kerr AB, Lustig M, Hu S, Chen AP, Nelson SJ, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Investigation of tumor hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate dynamics using time-resolved multiband RF excitation echo-planar MRSI. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Mar; 63(3):582-91.
Hu S, Lustig M, Balakrishnan A, Larson PE, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Nelson SJ, Goga A, Pauly JM, Vigneron DB. 3D compressed sensing for highly accelerated hyperpolarized (13)C MRSI with in vivo applications to transgenic mouse models of cancer. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Feb; 63(2):312-21.
Park I, Larson PE, Zierhut ML, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Vandenberg SR, James CD, Nelson SJ. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance metabolic imaging: application to brain tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):133-44.
Keshari KR, Wilson DM, Chen AP, Bok R, Larson PE, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized [2-13C]-fructose: a hemiketal DNP substrate for in vivo metabolic imaging. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 9; 131(48):17591-6.
Zierhut ML, Yen YF, Chen AP, Bok R, Albers MJ, Zhang V, Tropp J, Park I, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jan; 202(1):85-92.
Lupo JM, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok RA, Cunningham CH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Analysis of hyperpolarized dynamic 13C lactate imaging in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Feb; 28(2):153-62.
Yen YF, Kohler SJ, Chen AP, Tropp J, Bok R, Wolber J, Albers MJ, Gram KA, Zierhut ML, Park I, Zhang V, Hu S, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Dirven HA, Hurd RE. Imaging considerations for in vivo 13C metabolic mapping using hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Jul; 62(1):1-10.
Hu S, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok R, Yen YF, Schroeder MA, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo carbon-13 dynamic MRS and MRSI of normal and fasted rat liver with hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Mol Imaging Biol. 2009 Nov-Dec; 11(6):399-407.
Albers MJ, Bok R, Chen AP, Cunningham CH, Zierhut ML, Zhang VY, Kohler SJ, Tropp J, Hurd RE, Yen YF, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized 13C lactate, pyruvate, and alanine: noninvasive biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and grading. Cancer Res. 2008 Oct 15; 68(20):8607-15.
Chen AP, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Xu D, Joun D, Zhang V, Nelson SJ, Hurd RE, Vigneron DB. Feasibility of using hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate as a substrate for in vivo metabolic 13C MRSI studies. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jul; 26(6):721-6.
Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB. Current and potential applications of clinical 13C MR spectroscopy. J Nucl Med. 2008 Mar; 49(3):341-4.
Bok RA. Treatment of prostate cancer: therapeutic potential of targeted immunotherapy with APC8015. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb; 4(1):79-85.
Nelson SJ, Vigneron D, Kurhanewicz J, Chen A, Bok R, Hurd R. DNP-Hyperpolarized C Magnetic Resonance Metabolic Imaging for Cancer Applications. Appl Magn Reson. 2008; 34(3-4):533-544.
Chen AP, Albers MJ, Cunningham CH, Kohler SJ, Yen YF, Hurd RE, Tropp J, Bok R, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized C-13 spectroscopic imaging of the TRAMP mouse at 3T-initial experience. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Dec; 58(6):1099-106.
Kohler SJ, Yen Y, Wolber J, Chen AP, Albers MJ, Bok R, Zhang V, Tropp J, Nelson S, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Hurd RE. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Jul; 58(1):65-9.
Rini BI, Weinberg V, Dunlap S, Elchinoff A, Yu N, Bok R, Simko J, Small EJ. Maximal COX-2 immunostaining and clinical response to celecoxib and interferon alpha therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Feb 1; 106(3):566-75.
Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Weinberg V, Jones G, Rini BI, Derynck MK, Bok R, Smith MR, Bubley GJ, Rosen RT, DiPaola RS, Small EJ. Prospective, multicenter, randomized phase II trial of the herbal supplement, PC-SPES, and diethylstilbestrol in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Sep 15; 22(18):3705-12.
Rini BI, Weinberg V, Shaw V, Scott J, Bok R, Park JW, Small EJ. Time to disease progression to evaluate a novel protein kinase C inhibitor, UCN-01, in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Jul 1; 101(1):90-5.
Evangelou AI, Winter SF, Huss WJ, Bok RA, Greenberg NM. Steroid hormones, polypeptide growth factors, hormone refractory prostate cancer, and the neuroendocrine phenotype. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Mar 1; 91(4):671-83.
Sákra L, Siller J, Vyhnálek P, Bok R, Havlícek K, Janousek R. [Complications after ERCP and their treatment]. Rozhl Chir. 2003 Jul; 82(7):361-4.
Bok RA, Hansell EJ, Nguyen TP, Greenberg NM, McKerrow JH, Shuman MA. Patterns of protease production during prostate cancer progression: proteomic evidence for cascades in a transgenic model. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2003; 6(4):272-80.
Rini BI, Weinberg V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with serologic progression of prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 1; 21(1):99-105.
Bok RA, Small EJ. Bloodborne biomolecular markers in prostate cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Dec; 2(12):918-26.
Harris KA, Weinberg V, Bok RA, Kakefuda M, Small EJ. Low dose ketoconazole with replacement doses of hydrocortisone in patients with progressive androgen independent prostate cancer. J Urol. 2002 Aug; 168(2):542-5.
Elfman F, Bok R, Conn M, Shuman M, Cunha G. Urokinase plasminogen activator amino-terminal peptides inhibit development of the rat ventral prostate. Differentiation. 2001 Dec; 69(2-3):108-20.
Small EJ, Bok R, Reese DM, Sudilovsky D, Frohlich M. Docetaxel, estramustine, plus trastuzumab in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. Semin Oncol. 2001 Aug; 28(4 Suppl 15):71-6.
Bok RA, Halabi S, Fei DT, Rodriquez CR, Hayes DF, Vogelzang NJ, Kantoff P, Shuman MA, Small EJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor urine levels as predictors of outcome in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Cancer Res. 2001 Mar 15; 61(6):2533-6.
Small EJ, Frohlich MW, Bok R, Shinohara K, Grossfeld G, Rozenblat Z, Kelly WK, Corry M, Reese DM. Prospective trial of the herbal supplement PC-SPES in patients with progressive prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Nov 1; 18(21):3595-603.
Bok RA, Small EJ. The treatment of advanced prostate cancer with ketoconazole: safety issues. Drug Saf. 1999 May; 20(5):451-8.
Small EJ, Baron A, Bok R. Simultaneous antiandrogen withdrawal and treatment with ketoconazole and hydrocortisone in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 1997 Nov 1; 80(9):1755-9.
Bok RA, Jacob HS, Balla J, Juckett M, Stella T, Shatos MA, Vercellotti GM. Herpes simplex virus decreases endothelial cell plasminogen activator inhibitor. Thromb Haemost. 1993 Mar 1; 69(3):253-8.
de Brauw LM, van de Velde CJ, Pauwels EK, Bok R, Bloem JL, Aarts JC, Hermans J. Hepatic metastases: comparative study of diagnostic ultrasound, CT, nuclear scintigraphy and laboratory tests. Neth J Surg. 1991 Aug; 43(4):92-4.
de Brauw LM, van de Velde CJ, Pauwels EK, Bok R, Bloem JL, Aarts JC, Hermans J. Prospective comparative study of ultrasound, CT-scan, scintigraphy and laboratory tests to detect hepatic metastases. J Nucl Biol Med. 1991 Jul-Sep; 35(3):131-4.
Tamargo RJ, Bok RA, Brem H. Angiogenesis inhibition by minocycline. Cancer Res. 1991 Jan 15; 51(2):672-5.
Bok RA, Mangel WF. Quantitative characterization of the binding of plasminogen to intact fibrin clots, lysine-sepharose, and fibrin cleaved by plasmin. Biochemistry. 1985 Jun 18; 24(13):3279-86.