Gabby Joseph, PhD

Specialist

Biography

Gabby Joseph, PhD joined UCSF in 2003, and is a Specialist in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging. Gabby received her PhD in Bioengineering from UCSF and UC Berkeley, and her BS in Mechanical Engineering from UC Berkeley. Her research career has focused on non-invasive imaging of biochemical cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis using MRI T2 mapping. In addition to studying knee osteoarthritis, she has performed MR imaging of the intervertebral disc to investigate early markers of disc degeneration and back pain.

Dr. Joseph has received two NIH grants (F31 and F32), has over than 70 peer-reviewed articles published in the high-ranking journals, and serves as a reviewer for 14 scientific journals. She has mentored 30 researchers including medical students, residents, and fellows, providing guidance on study design, statistical analysis, and manuscript writing.

Expertise:
Musculoskeletal Imaging

Specialty:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Professional Interests:
Osteoarthritis, cartilage degeneration, intervertebral disc degeneration, quantitative imaging, statistical programming and analysis, predictive modeling, machine learning, technical writing

Education

B.S., - Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
Ph.D., - Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco

Publications

Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Neumann J, Lynch JA, Lane NE, Link TM. Associations Between Vitamins C and D Intake and Cartilage Composition and Knee Joint Morphology Over 4 Years: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 09; 72(9):1239-1247.
Posadzy M, Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Lynch JA, Lane NE, Link TM. Natural history of new horizontal meniscal tears in individuals at risk for and with mild to moderate osteoarthritis: data from osteoarthritis initiative. Eur Radiol. 2020 Nov; 30(11):5971-5980.
Foreman SC, Liu Y, Nevitt MC, Neumann J, Joseph GB, Lane NE, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Meniscal Root Tears and Extrusion Are Significantly Associated with the Development of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Cartilage. 2020 Jun 21; 1947603520934525.
Ashmeik W, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, Lane NE, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Association of blood pressure with knee cartilage composition and structural knee abnormalities: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Sep; 49(9):1359-1368.
Gutierrez LB, Link TM, Horvai AE, Joseph GB, O'Donnell RJ, Motamedi D. Secondary aneurysmal bone cysts and associated primary lesions: imaging features of 49 cases. Clin Imaging. 2020 Jun; 62:23-32.
Schirò S, Foreman SC, Bucknor M, Chin CT, Joseph GB, Link TM. Diagnostic Performance of CT-Guided Bone Biopsies in Patients with Suspected Osteomyelitis of the Appendicular and Axial Skeleton with a Focus on Clinical and Technical Factors Associated with Positive Microbiology Culture Results. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2020 Mar; 31(3):464-472.
Foreman SC, Gersing AS, von Schacky CE, Joseph GB, Neumann J, Lane NE, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Link TM. Chondrocalcinosis is associated with increased knee joint degeneration over 4 years: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2020 02; 28(2):201-207.
Foreman SC, Ashmeik W, Baal JD, Han M, Bahroos E, von Schacky CE, Carl M, Krug R, Joseph GB, Link TM. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Exhibit a More Mineralized Deep Cartilage Layer Compared with Nondiabetic Controls: A Pilot Study. Cartilage. 2019 Aug 27; 1947603519870853.
Neumann J, Kern K, Sun D, Foreman SC, Joseph GB, Gersing AS, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Quitzke A, Link TM. Cartilage degeneration post-meniscectomy performed for degenerative disease versus trauma: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Feb; 49(2):231-240.
Foreman SC, Neumann J, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Lane NE, Link TM. Longitudinal MRI structural findings observed in accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2019 Dec; 48(12):1949-1959.
Liu Y, Foreman SC, Joseph GB, Neumann J, Tien PC, Li X, Lane NE, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Is treated HIV infection associated with knee cartilage degeneration and structural changes? A longitudinal study using data from the osteoarthritis initiative. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 May 04; 20(1):190.
Baal JD, Pai JS, Chen WC, Joseph GB, O'Donnell RJ, Link TM. Factors Associated with Osteoid Osteoma Recurrence after CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2019 May; 30(5):744-751.
Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Nevitt MC, Zarnowski J, Joseph GB, Feuerriegel G, Jungmann PM, Guimaraes JB, Facchetti L, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Weight loss regimen in obese and overweight individuals is associated with reduced cartilage degeneration: 96-month data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2019 06; 27(6):863-870.
Kretzschmar M, Nevitt MC, Schwaiger BJ, Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Spatial distribution and temporal progression of T2 relaxation time values in knee cartilage prior to the onset of cartilage lesions - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2019 05; 27(5):737-745.
Kretzschmar M, Heilmeier U, Foreman SC, Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Link TM. Central osteophytes develop in cartilage with abnormal structure and composition: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort. Skeletal Radiol. 2019 Sep; 48(9):1357-1365.
Krug R, Joseph GB, Han M, Fields A, Cheung J, Mundada M, Bailey J, Rochette A, Ballatori A, McCulloch CE, McCormick Z, O'Neill C, Link TM, Lotz J. Associations between vertebral body fat fraction and intervertebral disc biochemical composition as assessed by quantitative MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 10; 50(4):1219-1226.
Sun D, Neumann J, Joseph GB, Foreman S, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Li X, Link TM. Introduction of an MR-based semi-quantitative score for assessing partial meniscectomy and relation to knee joint degenerative disease: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Eur Radiol. 2019 Jun; 29(6):3262-3272.
Neumann J, Guimaraes JB, Heilmeier U, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Diabetics show accelerated progression of knee cartilage and meniscal lesions: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2019 Jun; 48(6):919-930.
Neumann J, Zhang AL, Schwaiger BJ, Samaan MA, Souza R, Foreman SC, Joseph GB, Grace T, Majumdar S, Link TM. Validation of scoring hip osteoarthritis with MRI (SHOMRI) scores using hip arthroscopy as a standard of reference. Eur Radiol. 2019 Feb; 29(2):578-587.
Heilmeier U, Wamba JM, Joseph GB, Darakananda K, Callan J, Neumann J, Link TM. Baseline knee joint effusion and medial femoral bone marrow edema, in addition to MRI-based T2 relaxation time and texture measurements of knee cartilage, can help predict incident total knee arthroplasty 4-7 years later: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2019 Jan; 48(1):89-101.
Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Neumann J, Lynch JA, Heilmeier U, Lane NE, Link TM. Associations between molecular biomarkers and MR-based cartilage composition and knee joint morphology: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2018 08; 26(8):1070-1077.
Neumann J, Hofmann FC, Heilmeier U, Ashmeik W, Tang K, Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Nevitt MC, Joseph GB, Lane NE, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Type 2 diabetes patients have accelerated cartilage matrix degeneration compared to diabetes free controls: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2018 06; 26(6):751-761.
Knox J, Pedoia V, Wang A, Tanaka M, Joseph GB, Neumann J, Link TM, Li X, Ma CB. Longitudinal changes in MR T1?/T2 signal of meniscus and its association with cartilage T1p/T2 in ACL-injured patients. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2018 05; 26(5):689-696.
Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Neumann J, Gersing AS, Kretzschmar M, Schwaiger BJ, Lynch JA, Heilmeier U, Lane NE, Link TM. Tool for osteoarthritis risk prediction (TOARP) over 8 years using baseline clinical data, X-ray, and MRI: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 06; 47(6):1517-1526.
Guimaraes JB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Schwaiger BJ, Gersing AS, Facchetti L, Bucknor MD, Chanchek N, Liu F, Joseph GB, Link TM. Association of weight change with progression of meniscal intrasubstance degeneration over 48 months: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Eur Radiol. 2018 Mar; 28(3):953-962.
Hofmann FC, Neumann J, Heilmeier U, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Conservatively treated knee injury is associated with knee cartilage matrix degeneration measured with MRI-based T2 relaxation times: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Jan; 47(1):93-106.
Chanchek N, Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Nevitt MC, Neumann J, Joseph GB, Lane NE, Zarnowski J, Hofmann FC, Heilmeier U, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Association of diabetes mellitus and biochemical knee cartilage composition assessed by T2 relaxation time measurements: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 02; 47(2):380-390.
Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Nevitt MC, Joseph GB, Chanchek N, Guimaraes JB, Mbapte Wamba J, Facchetti L, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Is Weight Loss Associated with Less Progression of Changes in Knee Articular Cartilage among Obese and Overweight Patients as Assessed with MR Imaging over 48 Months? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Radiology. 2017 08; 284(2):508-520.
Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Kretzschmar M, Heilmeier U, Link TM. Medial femur T2 Z-scores predict the probability of knee structural worsening over 4-8 years: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 10; 46(4):1128-1136.
Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Heilmeier U, Joseph GB, Facchetti L, Kretzschmar M, Lynch JA, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Steinbach LS, Link TM. Evaluation of Chondrocalcinosis and Associated Knee Joint Degeneration Using MR Imaging: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Eur Radiol. 2017 Jun; 27(6):2497-2506.
Goldman LH, Tang K, Facchetti L, Heilmeier U, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Souza RB, Link TM. Role of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and strength in progression of knee cartilage degeneration over 48 months - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016 12; 24(12):2082-2091.
Heilmeier U, Cheng K, Pasco C, Parrish R, Nirody J, Patsch JM, Zhang CA, Joseph GB, Burghardt AJ, Schwartz AV, Link TM, Kazakia G. Cortical bone laminar analysis reveals increased midcortical and periosteal porosity in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with history of fragility fractures compared to fracture-free diabetics. Osteoporos Int. 2016 09; 27(9):2791-2802.
Kretzschmar M, Heilmeier U, Yu A, Joseph GB, Liu F, Solka M, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Link TM. Longitudinal analysis of cartilage T2 relaxation times and joint degeneration in African American and Caucasian American women over an observation period of 6 years - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016 08; 24(8):1384-91.
Joseph GB, Hou SW, Nardo L, Heilmeier U, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Link TM. MRI findings associated with development of incident knee pain over 48 months: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Skeletal Radiol. 2016 May; 45(5):653-60.
Gersing AS, Solka M, Joseph GB, Schwaiger BJ, Heilmeier U, Feuerriegel G, Nevitt MC, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Progression of cartilage degeneration and clinical symptoms in obese and overweight individuals is dependent on the amount of weight loss: 48-month data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016 07; 24(7):1126-34.
Joseph GB, Hilton JF, Jungmann PM, Lynch JA, Lane NE, Liu F, McCulloch CE, Tolstykh I, Link TM, Nevitt MC. Do persons with asymmetric hip pain or radiographic hip OA have worse pain and structure outcomes in the knee opposite the more affected hip? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016 Mar; 24(3):427-35.
Hackney LA, Lee MH, Joseph GB, Vail TP, Link TM. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head: associated imaging findings and predictors of clinical progression. Eur Radiol. 2016 Jun; 26(6):1929-41.
Kretzschmar M, Lin W, Nardo L, Joseph GB, Dunlop DD, Heilmeier U, Nevitt MC, Alizai H, McCulloch CE, Lynch JA, Link TM. Association of Physical Activity Measured by Accelerometer, Knee Joint Abnormalities, and Cartilage T2 Measurements Obtained From 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015 Sep; 67(9):1272-1280.
Yu A, Heilmeier U, Kretzschmar M, Joseph GB, Liu F, Liebl H, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Lane NE, Link TM. Racial differences in biochemical knee cartilage composition between African-American and Caucasian-American women with 3 T MR-based T2 relaxation time measurements--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Sep; 23(9):1595-604.
Kretzschmar M, Nardo L, Han MM, Heilmeier U, Sam C, Joseph GB, Koch KM, Krug R, Link TM. Metal artefact suppression at 3 T MRI: comparison of MAVRIC-SL with conventional fast spin echo sequences in patients with Hip joint arthroplasty. Eur Radiol. 2015 Aug; 25(8):2403-11.
Joseph GB, McCulloch CE, Nevitt MC, Heilmeier U, Nardo L, Lynch JA, Liu F, Baum T, Link TM. A reference database of cartilage 3 T MRI T2 values in knees without diagnostic evidence of cartilage degeneration: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Jun; 23(6):897-905.
Heilmeier U, Carpenter DR, Patsch JM, Harnish R, Joseph GB, Burghardt AJ, Baum T, Schwartz AV, Lang TF, Link TM. Volumetric femoral BMD, bone geometry, and serum sclerostin levels differ between type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with and without fragility fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Apr; 26(4):1283-93.
Bucknor MD, Nardo L, Joseph GB, Alizai H, Srikhum W, Nevitt MC, Lynch JA, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Association of cartilage degeneration with four year weight gain--3T MRI data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Apr; 23(4):525-31.
MR imaging characteristics and clinical symptoms related to displaced meniscal flap tears. Skeletal Radiol. 2015 Mar; 44(3):375-84.
Weight loss over 48 months is associated with reduced progression of cartilage T2 relaxation time values: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015 May; 41(5):1272-1280.
Cartilage lesion score: comparison of a quantitative assessment score with established semiquantitative MR scoring systems. Radiology. 2014 May; 271(2):479-87.
Association of metabolic risk factors with cartilage degradation assessed by T2 relaxation time at the knee: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Dec; 65(12):1942-50.
T(2) relaxation time measurements are limited in monitoring progression, once advanced cartilage defects at the knee occur: longitudinal data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Dec; 38(6):1415-24.
Cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis and cartilage repair procedures. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Oct; 21(10):1474-84.
Physical activity in relation to knee cartilage T2 progression measured with 3 T MRI over a period of 4 years: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Oct; 21(10):1558-66.
Regional variations in MR relaxation of hip joint cartilage in subjects with and without femoralacetabular impingement. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep; 31(7):1129-36.
Increased cortical porosity in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Feb; 28(2):313-24.
Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions with body mass index: thirty-six-month followup data from a longitudinal, observational multicenter study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Jan; 65(1):23-33.
T1? and T2 relaxation times predict progression of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Jan; 21(1):69-76.
Baseline mean and heterogeneity of MR cartilage T2 are associated with morphologic degeneration of cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Jul; 20(7):727-35.
Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women. Eur Radiol. 2012 Jul; 22(7):1592-600.
Baum T, Joseph GB, Arulanandan A, Nardo L, Virayavanich W, Carballido-Gamio J, Nevitt MC, Lynch J, McCulloch CE, Link TM. Association of magnetic resonance imaging-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions with knee pain: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Feb; 64(2):248-55.
Zuo J, Joseph GB, Li X, Link TM, Hu SS, Berven SH, Kurhanewitz J, Majumdar S. In vivo intervertebral disc characterization using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T1? imaging: association with discography and Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Feb 01; 37(3):214-21.
Changes in knee cartilage T2 values over 24 months in subjects with and without risk factors for knee osteoarthritis and their association with focal knee lesions at baseline: data from the osteoarthritis initiative. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Feb; 35(2):370-8.
Joseph GB, Baum T, Carballido-Gamio J, Nardo L, Virayavanich W, Alizai H, Lynch JA, McCulloch CE, Majumdar S, Link TM. Texture analysis of cartilage T2 maps: individuals with risk factors for OA have higher and more heterogeneous knee cartilage MR T2 compared to normal controls--data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011; 13(5):R153.
Pan J, Pialat JB, Joseph T, Kuo D, Joseph GB, Nevitt MC, Link TM. Knee cartilage T2 characteristics and evolution in relation to morphologic abnormalities detected at 3-T MR imaging: a longitudinal study of the normal control cohort from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Radiology. 2011 Nov; 261(2):507-15.
Stehling C, Baum T, Mueller-Hoecker C, Liebl H, Carballido-Gamio J, Joseph GB, Majumdar S, Link TM. A novel fast knee cartilage segmentation technique for T2 measurements at MR imaging--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Aug; 19(8):984-9.
Carballido-Gamio J, Joseph GB, Lynch JA, Link TM, Majumdar S. Longitudinal analysis of MRI T2 knee cartilage laminar organization in a subset of patients from the osteoarthritis initiative: a texture approach. Magn Reson Med. 2011 Apr; 65(4):1184-94.
Blumenkrantz G, Zuo J, Li X, Kornak J, Link TM, Majumdar S. In vivo 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance T1rho and T2 relaxation mapping in subjects with intervertebral disc degeneration and clinical symptoms. Magn Reson Med. 2010 May; 63(5):1193-200.
Carballido-Gamio J, Blumenkrantz G, Lynch JA, Link TM, Majumdar S. Longitudinal analysis of MRI T(2) knee cartilage laminar organization in a subset of patients from the osteoarthritis initiative. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Feb; 63(2):465-72.
Carballido-Gamio J, Stahl R, Blumenkrantz G, Romero A, Majumdar S, Link TM. Spatial analysis of magnetic resonance T1rho and T2 relaxation times improves classification between subjects with and without osteoarthritis. Med Phys. 2009 Sep; 36(9):4059-67.
Li X, Pai A, Blumenkrantz G, Carballido-Gamio J, Link T, Ma B, Ries M, Majumdar S. Spatial distribution and relationship of T1rho and T2 relaxation times in knee cartilage with osteoarthritis. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Jun; 61(6):1310-8.
Blumenkrantz G, Stahl R, Carballido-Gamio J, Zhao S, Lu Y, Munoz T, Hellio Le Graverand-Gastineau MP, Jain SK, Link TM, Majumdar S. The feasibility of characterizing the spatial distribution of cartilage T(2) using texture analysis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 May; 16(5):584-90.
Stahl R, Blumenkrantz G, Carballido-Gamio J, Zhao S, Munoz T, Hellio Le Graverand-Gastineau MP, Li X, Majumdar S, Link TM. MRI-derived T2 relaxation times and cartilage morphometry of the tibio-femoral joint in subjects with and without osteoarthritis during a 1-year follow-up. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Nov; 15(11):1225-34.
Blumenkrantz G, Majumdar S. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. Eur Cell Mater. 2007 May 15; 13:76-86.
Li X, Benjamin Ma C, Link TM, Castillo DD, Blumenkrantz G, Lozano J, Carballido-Gamio J, Ries M, Majumdar S. In vivo T(1rho) and T(2) mapping of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis of the knee using 3 T MRI. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Jul; 15(7):789-97.
Majumdar S, Li X, Blumenkrantz G, Saldanha K, Ma CB, Kim H, Lozano J, Link T. MR imaging and early cartilage degeneration and strategies for monitoring regeneration. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):382-4.
Blumenkrantz G, Li X, Han ET, Newitt DC, Crane JC, Link TM, Majumdar S. A feasibility study of in vivo T1rho imaging of the intervertebral disc. Magn Reson Imaging. 2006 Oct; 24(8):1001-7.
Phan CM, Link TM, Blumenkrantz G, Dunn TC, Ries MD, Steinbach LS, Majumdar S. MR imaging findings in the follow-up of patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis and the correlation with clinical symptoms. Eur Radiol. 2006 Mar; 16(3):608-18.
Lee KY, Slavinsky JP, Ries MD, Blumenkrantz G, Majumdar S. Magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo kinematics after total knee arthroplasty. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2005 Feb; 21(2):172-8.
Blumenkrantz G, Lindsey CT, Dunn TC, Jin H, Ries MD, Link TM, Steinbach LS, Majumdar S. A pilot, two-year longitudinal study of the interrelationship between trabecular bone and articular cartilage in the osteoarthritic knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2004 Dec; 12(12):997-1005.