Randall Hawkins, MD, PhD

Professor

Biography

Randall Hawkins, MD, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Hawkins previously served as Program Chief of the Nuclear Medicine Section at UCSF from 1993-2009. He earned his MD from the University of California, Irvine in 1975, and completed a fellowship in Medical Physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1975. Dr. Hawkins completed a residency in Radiology from the University of Southern California Medical Center in 1979, a residency in Nuclear Medicine from UCLA in 1981, and a Chief residency in Nuclear Medicine from UCLA in 1981. He obtained his MS in Medical Physics from UCLA in 1981, followed by a PhD in Biomedical Physics from UCLA in 1985.

Dr. Hawkins’s research interests are focused on clinical and methodological developments and applications of PET, SPECT, and other imaging modalities in disease states such as cancer, selected work in pathologic, and physiologic investigations of the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and other organ systems. Dr. Hawkins performed the first successful quantitative kinetic PET imaging evaluation of mice. Others followed with the development of micro PET and micro PET/CT scanners, which is now a part of the imaging research environment.

Dr. Hawkins is the lead investigator of a project that was the first to use whole body PET clinical examinations. He has served as Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator for several NIH grants, and he has published 142 articles, 11 book chapter, with 4 significant publications.

Expertise:
Nuclear Medicine

Specialty:
PET imaging, SPECT

Professional Interests:
Nuclear medicine, radiology, positron emission tomography, cancer, brain, heart

Education and Training:
• Medical School: University of California, Irvine
• Internship: University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles - Medicine
• Residency: University of Southern California Medical Center - Radiology
• Residency: University of California, Los Angeles - Nuclear Medicine
• Fellowship: University of California, Berkeley - Medical Physics
• Masters of Science: University of California, Los Angeles - Medical Physics
• Doctor of Philosophy: University of California, Los Angeles - Biomedical Physics
• California Medical License
• Ohio Medical License (inactive)
• American Board of Radiology (ABR)
• American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM)

Publications

Villablanca JG, Ji L, Shapira-Lewinson A, Marachelian A, Shimada H, Hawkins RA, Pampaloni M, Lai H, Goodarzian F, Sposto R, Park JR, Matthay KK. Predictors of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival using NANT Response Criteria (v1.0) in relapsed and refractory high-risk neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 May; 65(5):e26940.
Behr SC, Bahroos E, Hawkins RA, Nardo L, Ravanfar V, Capbarat EV, Seo Y. Quantitative and Visual Assessments toward Potential Sub-mSv or Ultrafast FDG PET Using High-Sensitivity TOF PET in PET/MRI. Mol Imaging Biol. 2017 Nov 30.
Ronald JA, Kim BS, Gowrishankar G, Namavari M, Alam IS, D'Souza A, Nishikii H, Chuang HY, Ilovich O, Lin CF, Reeves R, Shuhendler A, Hoehne A, Chan CT, Baker J, Yaghoubi SS, VanBrocklin HF, Hawkins R, Franc BL, Jivan S, Slater JB, Verdin EF, Gao KT, Benjamin J, Negrin R, Gambhir SS. A PET Imaging Strategy to Visualize Activated T Cells in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Elicited by Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant. Cancer Res. 2017 06 01; 77(11):2893-2902.
Arentson-Lantz EJ, Saeed IH, Frassetto LA, Masharani U, Harnish RJ, Seo Y, VanBrocklin HF, Hawkins RA, Mari-Aparici C, Pampaloni MH, Slater J, Paddon-Jones D, Lang TF. 11C-L-methyl methionine dynamic PET/CT of skeletal muscle: response to protein supplementation compared to L-[ring 13C6] phenylalanine infusion with serial muscle biopsy. Ann Nucl Med. 2017 May; 31(4):295-303.
Behr SC, Mollard BJ, Yang J, Flavell RR, Hawkins RA, Seo Y. Effect of Time-of-Flight and Regularized Reconstructions on Quantitative Measurements and Qualitative Assessments in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer With 18F-Fluorocholine Dual Time Point PET/MRI. Mol Imaging. 2017 Jan-Dec; 16:1536012117736703.
Franc BL, Goth S, MacKenzie J, Li X, Blecha J, Lam T, Jivan S, Hawkins RA, VanBrocklin H. In Vivo PET Imaging of the Activated Immune Environment in a Small Animal Model of Inflammatory Arthritis. Mol Imaging. 2017 Jan 01; 16:1536012117712638.
Fidelman N, Kerlan RK, Hawkins RA, Pampaloni M, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Kolli KP, Atreya CE, Bergsland EK, Kelley RK, Ko AH, Korn WM, Van Loon K, McWhirter RM, Luan J, Johanson C, Venook AP. Radioembolization with 90Y glass microspheres for the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver disease from chemotherapy-refractory gastrointestinal cancers: final report of a prospective pilot study. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2016 Dec; 7(6):860-874.
Li R, Polishchuk A, DuBois S, Hawkins R, Lee SW, Bagatell R, Shusterman S, Hill-Kayser C, Al-Sayegh H, Diller L, Haas-Kogan DA, Matthay KK, London WB, Marcus KJ. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 02 01; 97(2):270-277.
Barajas RF, Krohn KA, Link JM, Hawkins RA, Clarke JL, Pampaloni MH, Cha S. Glioma FMISO PET/MR Imaging Concurrent with Antiangiogenic Therapy: Molecular Imaging as a Clinical Tool in the Burgeoning Era of Personalized Medicine. Biomedicines. 2016 Oct 31; 4(4).
Monteith TS, Kralik SF, Dillon WP, Hawkins RA, Goadsby PJ. The utility of radioisotope cisternography in low CSF/volume syndromes compared to myelography. Cephalalgia. 2016 Nov; 36(13):1291-1295.
Schankin CJ, Maniyar FH, Seo Y, Kori S, Eller M, Chou DE, Blecha J, Murphy ST, Hawkins RA, Sprenger T, VanBrocklin HF, Goadsby PJ. Ictal lack of binding to brain parenchyma suggests integrity of the blood-brain barrier for 11C-dihydroergotamine during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine. Brain. 2016 07; 139(Pt 7):1994-2001.
DuBois SG, Marachelian A, Fox E, Kudgus RA, Reid JM, Groshen S, Malvar J, Bagatell R, Wagner L, Maris JM, Hawkins R, Courtier J, Lai H, Goodarzian F, Shimada H, Czarnecki S, Tsao-Wei D, Matthay KK, Mosse YP. Phase I Study of the Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor Alisertib in Combination With Irinotecan and Temozolomide for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma: A NANT (New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy) Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 20; 34(12):1368-75.
Kleis MA, Daldrup-Link H, Goldsby R, Hawkins RA, Franc BL. Multiple Scalp Lesions in a Patient with Keratitis, Ichthyosis and Deafness Syndrome Mimicking Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Radiol Case Rep. 2009; 4(2):218.
Flavell RR, Naeger DM, Aparici CM, Hawkins RA, Pampaloni MH, Behr SC. Malignancies with Low Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake at PET/CT: Pitfalls and Prognostic Importance: Resident and Fellow Education Feature. Radiographics. 2016 Jan-Feb; 36(1):293-4.
Aparici CM, Bains SN, Carlson D, Qian J, Liou D, Wojciechowski D, Werner J, Khan S, Kroll C, Sandhu M, Nguyen N, Hawkins R. Recovery of Native Renal Function in Patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome Following Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant with Mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 Renogram: Developing a Methodology. World J Nucl Med. 2016 Jan-Apr; 15(1):44-9.
Lee JS, Wu R, Wong T, DuBois SG, Matthay K, Gustafson C, Hawkins R, Roy-Burman A. Extended Sedation With Continuous Midazolam or Dexmedetomidine Infusion for Young Children Receiving 131 I-MIBG Radiopharmaceutical Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 Mar; 63(3):471-8.
Trieu M, DuBois SG, Pon E, Nardo L, Hawkins RA, Marachelian A, Twist CJ, Park JR, Matthay KK. Impact of Whole-Body Radiation Dose on Response and Toxicity in Patients With Neuroblastoma After Therapy With 131 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 Mar; 63(3):436-42.
Huang SY, Bolch WE, Lee C, Van Brocklin HF, Pampaloni MH, Hawkins RA, Sznewajs A, DuBois SG, Matthay KK, Seo Y. Patient-specific dosimetry using pretherapy [¹²4I]m-iodobenzylguanidine ([¹²4I]mIBG) dynamic PET/CT imaging before [¹³¹I]mIBG targeted radionuclide therapy for neuroblastoma. Mol Imaging Biol. 2015 Apr; 17(2):284-94.
Barajas RF, Pampaloni MH, Clarke JL, Seo Y, Savic D, Hawkins RA, Behr SC, Chang SM, Berger M, Dillon WP, Cha S. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma. Case Rep Radiol. 2015; 2015:731361.
DuBois SG, Groshen S, Park JR, Haas-Kogan DA, Yang X, Geier E, Chen E, Giacomini K, Weiss B, Cohn SL, Granger MM, Yanik GA, Hawkins R, Courtier J, Jackson H, Goodarzian F, Shimada H, Czarnecki S, Tsao-Wei D, Villablanca JG, Marachelian A, Matthay KK. Phase I Study of Vorinostat as a Radiation Sensitizer with 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) for Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jun 15; 21(12):2715-21.
Yanik GA, Villablanca JG, Maris JM, Weiss B, Groshen S, Marachelian A, Park JR, Tsao-Wei D, Hawkins R, Shulkin BL, Jackson H, Goodarzian F, Shimada H, Courtier J, Hutchinson R, Haas-Koga D, Hasenauer CB, Czarnecki S, Katzenstein HM, Matthay KK. 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma. A new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy (NANT) phase II study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015 Apr; 21(4):673-81.
Bucknor MD, Rieke V, Seo Y, Horvai AE, Hawkins RA, Majumdar S, Link TM, Saeed M. Bone remodeling after MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation: evaluation with MR imaging, CT, Na(18)F-PET, and histopathologic examination in a swine model. Radiology. 2015 Feb; 274(2):387-94.
Fidelman N, Kerlan RK, Hawkins RA, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Kolli KP, Bergsland EK, Kelley RK, Ko AH, Korn WM, McWhirter RM, Luan J, Venook AP. 90Y glass microspheres for the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver disease from chemotherapy-refractory gastrointestinal cancers: a pilot study. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014 Jun; 45(2):168-80.
Polishchuk AL, Li R, Hill-Kayser C, Little A, Hawkins RA, Hamilton J, Lau M, Tran HC, Strahlendorf C, Lemons RS, Weinberg V, Matthay KK, DuBois SG, Marcus KJ, Bagatell R, Haas-Kogan DA. Likelihood of bone recurrence in prior sites of metastasis in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Jul 15; 89(4):839-45.
Bolouri MS, Elias SG, Wisner DJ, Behr SC, Hawkins RA, Suzuki SA, Banfield KS, Joe BN, Hylton NM. Triple-negative and non-triple-negative invasive breast cancer: association between MR and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging. Radiology. 2013 Nov; 269(2):354-61.
Wong T, Matthay KK, Boscardin WJ, Hawkins RA, Brakeman PR, DuBois SG. Acute changes in blood pressure in patients with neuroblastoma treated with ¹³¹I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 Sep; 60(9):1424-30.
French S, DuBois SG, Horn B, Granger M, Hawkins R, Pass A, Plummer E, Matthay K. 131I-MIBG followed by consolidation with busulfan, melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 May; 60(5):879-84.
Matthay KK, Weiss B, Villablanca JG, Maris JM, Yanik GA, Dubois SG, Stubbs J, Groshen S, Tsao-Wei D, Hawkins R, Jackson H, Goodarzian F, Daldrup-Link H, Panigrahy A, Towbin A, Shimada H, Barrett J, Lafrance N, Babich J. Dose escalation study of no-carrier-added 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma: new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy consortium trial. J Nucl Med. 2012 Jul; 53(7):1155-63.
DuBois SG, Chesler L, Groshen S, Hawkins R, Goodarzian F, Shimada H, Yanik G, Tagen M, Stewart C, Mosse YP, Maris JM, Tsao-Wei D, Marachelian A, Villablanca JG, Matthay KK. Phase I study of vincristine, irinotecan, and ¹³¹I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma: a new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 May 01; 18(9):2679-86.
Aparici CM, Carlson D, Nguyen N, Hawkins RA, Seo Y. Combined SPECT and Multidetector CT for Prostate Cancer Evaluations. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012; 2(1):48-54.
Gawande RS, Khurana A, Messing S, Zhang D, Castañeda RT, Goldsby RE, Hawkins RA, Daldrup-Link HE. Differentiation of normal thymus from anterior mediastinal lymphoma and lymphoma recurrence at pediatric PET/CT. Radiology. 2012 Feb; 262(2):613-22.
Kumar R, Hawkins RA, Yeh BM, Wang ZJ. Focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesions without computed tomography correlate at whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology patients: how often are they malignant? Nucl Med Commun. 2011 Sep; 32(9):802-7.
Seo Y, Aparici CM, Chen CP, Hsu C, Kased N, Schreck C, Costouros N, Hawkins R, Shinohara K, Roach Iii M. Mapping of lymphatic drainage from the prostate using filtered 99mTc-sulfur nanocolloid and SPECT/CT. J Nucl Med. 2011 Jul; 52(7):1068-72.
Polishchuk AL, Dubois SG, Haas-Kogan D, Hawkins R, Matthay KK. Response, survival, and toxicity after iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for neuroblastoma in preadolescents, adolescents, and adults. Cancer. 2011 Sep 15; 117(18):4286-93.
Quach A, Ji L, Mishra V, Sznewajs A, Veatch J, Huberty J, Franc B, Sposto R, Groshen S, Wei D, Fitzgerald P, Maris JM, Yanik G, Hawkins RA, Villablanca JG, Matthay KK. Thyroid and hepatic function after high-dose 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131 I-MIBG) therapy for neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Feb; 56(2):191-201.
Lee CL, Wahnishe H, Sayre GA, Cho HM, Kim HJ, Hernandez-Pampaloni M, Hawkins RA, Dannoon SF, VanBrocklin HF, Itsara M, Weiss WA, Yang X, Haas-Kogan DA, Matthay KK, Seo Y. Radiation dose estimation using preclinical imaging with 124I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) PET. Med Phys. 2010 Sep; 37(9):4861-7.
Seo Y, Aparici CM, Cooperberg MR, Konety BR, Hawkins RA. In vivo tumor grading of prostate cancer using quantitative 111In-capromab pendetide SPECT/CT. J Nucl Med. 2010 Jan; 51(1):31-6.
Taggart DR, Han MM, Quach A, Groshen S, Ye W, Villablanca JG, Jackson HA, Mari Aparici C, Carlson D, Maris J, Hawkins R, Matthay KK. Comparison of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to evaluate response after iodine-131 MIBG therapy for relapsed neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Nov 10; 27(32):5343-9.
Kebebew E, Lindsay S, Clark OH, Woeber KA, Hawkins R, Greenspan FS. Results of rosiglitazone therapy in patients with thyroglobulin-positive and radioiodine-negative advanced differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009 Sep; 19(9):953-6.
Gonias S, Goldsby R, Matthay KK, Hawkins R, Price D, Huberty J, Damon L, Linker C, Sznewajs A, Shiboski S, Fitzgerald P. Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep 01; 27(25):4162-8.
Matthay KK, Quach A, Huberty J, Franc BL, Hawkins RA, Jackson H, Groshen S, Shusterman S, Yanik G, Veatch J, Brophy P, Villablanca JG, Maris JM. Iodine-131--metaiodobenzylguanidine double infusion with autologous stem-cell rescue for neuroblastoma: a new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy phase I study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 01; 27(7):1020-5.
Wagner LM, Villablanca JG, Stewart CF, Crews KR, Groshen S, Reynolds CP, Park JR, Maris JM, Hawkins RA, Daldrup-Link HE, Jackson HA, Matthay KK. Phase I trial of oral irinotecan and temozolomide for children with relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma: a new approach to neuroblastoma therapy consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 10; 27(8):1290-6.
Badiee S, Franc BL, Webb EM, Chu B, Hawkins RA, Coakley F, Singer L. Role of IV iodinated contrast material in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Nov; 191(5):1436-9.
Kleis M, Daldrup-Link H, Matthay K, Goldsby R, Lu Y, Schuster T, Schreck C, Chu PW, Hawkins RA, Franc BL. Diagnostic value of PET/CT for the staging and restaging of pediatric tumors. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009 Jan; 36(1):23-36.
Daldrup-Link HE, Hawkins RA, Meier R, Goldsby RE, Artemov D. Receptor imaging of pediatric tumors: clinical practice and new developments. Pediatr Radiol. 2008 Nov; 38(11):1154-61.
Lee TJ, Glastonbury CM, Buckley AF, Eisele DW, Hawkins RA. Perineural spread of melanoma demonstrated by F-18 FDG PET With MRI and pathologic correlation. Clin Nucl Med. 2008 Feb; 33(2):106-8.
Franc BL, Hawkins RA. Positron emission tomography, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and molecular imaging of the breast cancer patient. Semin Roentgenol. 2007 Oct; 42(4):265-79.
Purcell DD, Coakley FV, Franc BL, Hawkins RA, Boddington SE, Yeh BM. Anterior layering of excreted 18F-FDG in the bladder on PET/CT: frequency and cause. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Aug; 189(2):W96-9.
Teo BK, Seo Y, Bacharach SL, Carrasquillo JA, Libutti SK, Shukla H, Hasegawa BH, Hawkins RA, Franc BL. Partial-volume correction in PET: validation of an iterative postreconstruction method with phantom and patient data. J Nucl Med. 2007 May; 48(5):802-10.
Falk MS, Truitt AK, Coakley FV, Kashani-Sabet M, Hawkins RA, Franc B. Interpretation, accuracy and management implications of FDG PET/CT in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Nucl Med Commun. 2007 Apr; 28(4):273-80.
Matthay KK, Yanik G, Messina J, Quach A, Huberty J, Cheng SC, Veatch J, Goldsby R, Brophy P, Kersun LS, Hawkins RA, Maris JM. Phase II study on the effect of disease sites, age, and prior therapy on response to iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in refractory neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Mar 20; 25(9):1054-60.
Messina JA, Cheng SC, Franc BL, Charron M, Shulkin B, To B, Maris JM, Yanik G, Hawkins RA, Matthay KK. Evaluation of semi-quantitative scoring system for metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scans in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Dec; 47(7):865-74.
Fitzgerald PA, Goldsby RE, Huberty JP, Price DC, Hawkins RA, Veatch JJ, Dela Cruz F, Jahan TM, Linker CA, Damon L, Matthay KK. Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Aug; 1073:465-90.
Seo Y, Franc BL, Hawkins RA, Wong KH, Hasegawa BH. Progress in SPECT/CT imaging of prostate cancer. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Aug; 5(4):329-36.
Seo Y, Wong KH, Sun M, Franc BL, Hawkins RA, Hasegawa BH. Correction of photon attenuation and collimator response for a body-contouring SPECT/CT imaging system. J Nucl Med. 2005 May; 46(5):868-77.
Bredella MA, Steinbach L, Caputo G, Segall G, Hawkins R. Value of FDG PET in the assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005 Apr; 184(4):1199-204.
Howard JP, Maris JM, Kersun LS, Huberty JP, Cheng SC, Hawkins RA, Matthay KK. Tumor response and toxicity with multiple infusions of high dose 131I-MIBG for refractory neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005 Mar; 44(3):232-9.
DuBois SG, Messina J, Maris JM, Huberty J, Glidden DV, Veatch J, Charron M, Hawkins R, Matthay KK. Hematologic toxicity of high-dose iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for advanced neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 15; 22(12):2452-60.
Wang ZJ, Reddy GP, Gotway MB, Higgins CB, Jablons DM, Ramaswamy M, Hawkins RA, Webb WR. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: evaluation with CT, MR imaging, and PET. Radiographics. 2004 Jan-Feb; 24(1):105-19.
Weiss B, Vora A, Huberty J, Hawkins RA, Matthay KK. Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia following 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for relapsed neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003 Jul; 25(7):543-7.
Hasegawa BH, Wong KH, Iwata K, Barber WC, Hwang AB, Sakdinawat AE, Ramaswamy M, Price DC, Hawkins RA. Dual-modality imaging of cancer with SPECT/CT. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2002 Dec; 1(6):449-58.
Pham KH, Ramaswamy MR, Hawkins RA. Advances in positron emission tomography imaging for the GI tract. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002 Jun; 55(7 Suppl):S53-63.
Wong ST, Hoo KS, Knowlton RC, Laxer KD, Cao X, Hawkins RA, Dillon WP, Arenson RL. Design and applications of a multimodality image data warehouse framework. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002 May-Jun; 9(3):239-54.
Whittle IR, Hawkins RA, Miller JD. Sex hormone receptors in intracranial tumours and normal brain. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1987 Aug; 13(4):303-7.